May one thing as mundane as a shirt ever be the motive for homicide? What if clothes have been costlier than lease or a mortgage? In 1636 a maidservant, Joan Burs, went out to purchase mercury. A poisonous heavy steel, mercury causes injury to the nervous system and may really feel like bugs are crawling beneath the pores and skin. Burs baked the poison right into a milk posset (which regularly contained spices and alcohol that may have masked the bitter style), planning to kill her mistress. She believed that if the girl of the home have been lifeless, she herself may get higher clothes.
The only form of coat price £1, which was 20 days’ labour for a talented tradesman. Garments have been generally talked about first in a will, since they might be costlier than a home. Even the well-off, corresponding to Samuel Pepys, remade and refashioned present clothes as a lot as they may fairly than shopping for new.
It’s no surprise, due to this fact, that there was a thriving black marketplace for second-hand clothes of doubtful provenance; a lot of the clothes worn by the middling and dealing courses basically ‘fell off a cart’. The online of how such issues have been acquired may change into extraordinarily advanced, as tinkers hawked each new and second-hand wares, and objects have been handed on or exchanged – to not point out the markets that thrived on the clothes commerce. To produce the nation’s insatiable demand for brand spanking new garments, thieves may strip drunk folks on their method dwelling from an evening out, power doorways, and even tear down partitions. In city areas in Seventeenth-century England stolen garments accounted for probably the most prosecutions of any crime. It was uncommon for anybody to commit (or try to commit) homicide over an merchandise of clothes, however the motivations for stealing have been broad. Typically, they have been crimes of alternative: freshly washed linen frolicked to dry on hedges, awaiting seize from any passer-by.
Some thefts, nevertheless, have been extra sophisticated, involving performing and the methods of the con-artist’s commerce. One chilly winter’s night time (because it was the little ice age, each winter’s night time was chilly), a teenage boy was despatched on a easy errand. All he needed to do was take some garments – valued at about £4, no small sum – and ship them to a gentleman throughout town. Passing alongside Watling Road, a lady stopped him and demanded his identify, his mom’s identify, the place he lived and what his errand was. He answered her questions and continued alongside his journey. In the meantime, the girl handed all this info on to her partner-in-crime, who set off after the boy, hailing him by identify and talking of his mom. She requested him to purchase a shoulder of mutton for her whereas she waited with the garments. The boy did so, however returned to search out no girl and no garments. Such operations would have been immensely worthwhile and tough to hint, because the stolen items would have been bought on to the second-hand garments sellers who provided the entire nation.
No member of society was protected from the theft of garments. Maybe the best-loved, and positively one of many best-known, celebrities of the Elizabethan interval (in addition to being Elizabeth I’s private jester) was the clown Richard Tarlton, identified for his witty comebacks and cheeky persona. One night time, whereas Tarlton was downstairs at an inn, carrying solely his shirt and nightgown, ingesting with some musician buddies, a thief crept into his room and stole all his garments. The story travelled round London to nice hilarity and the clown was publicly mocked when he subsequent carried out onstage. Nevertheless, Tarlton had the considerably macabre final chortle, responding to the group with one of many impromptu verses that made him well-known. He declared,
When that the theefe shall Pine and lacke,
Then shall I’ve cloathes to my backe:
And I, along with my fellowes,
Might even see them trip to Tiborne Gallowes.
These caught stealing garments have been regularly hanged at Tyburn, often known as ‘Tyburn tree’. (Executions have been supposed to discourage thieving.) Spending their final night time at Newgate jail, they’d be paraded by way of the streets in a horse and cart earlier than a boisterous crowd, all jostling for one of the best view of the condemned and hanging on the thief’s final phrases. Mockingly, the occasions have been prime websites for pickpockets.
Whereas clothes might be the motive for theft or homicide as a result of it was so tough to return by, an correct description by a witness of the perpetrator’s clothes may safe a conviction. For instance, after Francis Terry stole wheat from a barn in 1626 he left a particular footprint that made figuring out him straightforward. The print confirmed three indentations mapped to 3 nails on the only real of Terry’s proper boot.
After different crimes, witnesses recalled a person in a crimson coat, carrying a hat with a gap in it, or wearing gray garments. Since many individuals solely had one or two outfits, this was seen as constructive proof and helped safe a conviction. Lastly, in shut communities the place phrase of mouth was paramount, any change in clothes may arouse suspicion. Mary Watts gave the sport away after allegedly stealing a silver bowl and a few clothes, since she purchased herself new garments with the earnings, to the shock of the group round her.
Folks within the sixteenth and Seventeenth centuries had a relationship with clothes that’s tough to grasp in an age of quick trend, the place garments change with the seasons and any change in id is immediately worn on the physique. However, for early fashionable folks, trend was simply as related to id. Most couldn’t afford to vary their garments typically, however their outfits grew to become a part of how they have been seen and the way they noticed themselves. A change of clothes may provoke anger, hilarity, and even ideas of homicide.
Sophie Shorland is a historian of queenship and celeb.