There was a welcome proliferation of publications marking the centenary of the Irish Civil Conflict. This guide from the Irish Occasions journalist Ronan McGreevy needs to be required studying on that battle, in addition to on Eire’s wider revolutionary interval. Not solely does McGreevy recount, in vivid element, the homicide of Sir Henry Wilson in London on 22 June 1922, he places the killing within the context of the political tumult from which the Irish Free State emerged.
That the assassins, Reginald Dunne and Joseph O’Sullivan, regardless of accidents sustained within the battle (each had served with the British Military through the First World Conflict and subsequently joined the Irish Republican Military), managed to drag off the assault was extraordinary in itself. The assassination of high-profile figures was a long-standing technique of militant Irish republicanism and McGreevy painstakingly particulars how and why Wilson turned a goal for the IRA. Born in County Longford in 1864, he was a serious navy determine through the First World Conflict and a a lot admired casual adviser to Prime Minister Lloyd George. He straddled navy and political worlds and, when his armed service was over, he was elected as MP for the staunchly unionist North Down constituency.
Not like many in Whitehall who got here to recognise the necessity for, if not the deserves of, House Rule for Eire, Wilson remained vehemently opposed, significantly in his bullish and uncompromising public pronouncements. That isn’t to say that he did not recognise how counterproductive executions of republican prisoners like Kevin Barry can be, however Wilson’s public picture was that of a ‘bigoted partisan’, as he was described within the Irish Unbiased.
The surprising sectarian violence that occurred in Northern Eire in 1920-22 and Wilson’s perspective to it receives important focus in Nice Hatred. It’s a grim reminder that violence and loss of life on this brief interval have been as intense, if no more so, than through the Troubles of 1969-95. The chairman of the Provisional Irish Authorities Michael Collins used the bloodshed in Ulster (and Wilson’s affiliation with the worst excesses of the Particular Constabulary which was created to revive order) to publicly label the sector marshal as a ‘violent Orange partisan’. If would-be assassins in London wanted a cue, that was simply one among many.
McGreevy’s guide highlights the various nuances and complexities in British and Irish politics on the time. That is, in spite of everything, the story of two British-born Irish republicans who killed an Irish-born British imperialist. Reggie Dunne and Joe O’Sullivan shared a background within the military – O’Sullivan misplaced a leg in battle and Dunne skilled the PTSD which bedevilled so many former troopers – but in addition in republican circles in London. The pair used their battle medals to divert consideration from their underground gun-running, intelligence work and spying. Their Catholic religiosity and willingness to embrace the custom of struggling and sacrifice amongst Irish martyrs certain them collectively.
A key rivalry of Nice Hatred is that the homicide triggered the Irish Civil Conflict. There isn’t any doubt that its impact was akin to flicking a lit match into an already smouldering political cauldron. The occupation of the 4 Courts in Dublin by anti-Treaty forces, in breach of the phrases of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 which concluded the Conflict of Independence, drew condemnation from Westminster. The so-called Pact Election of June 1922, by which each side of the Treaty divide tried to agree a post-election coalition upfront, was met with deep scepticism by the British authorities. The homicide of an MP who had been a prime navy adviser to that authorities was, in some ways, the ultimate straw.
The condemnation of the homicide within the British and worldwide press compounded the stress on Collins to behave; he can’t have been unmoved by the reputational harm accomplished to his fledgling administration by lurid editorials within the international press. The British have been ‘spoiling for revenge’ and impressed on the Irish Provisional Authorities the necessity to deliver the rebels within the 4 Courts to heel. Lloyd George advised Collins that His Majesty’s authorities wouldn’t countenance any continuation of the ‘rebellious defiance of the ideas of the Treaty’. A plan for Common Macready, who commanded the remaining British forces in Eire, to storm the 4 Courts was mooted, however he recognised it might be politically disastrous. As a substitute it was left to the brand new Irish military to explode the anti-Treaty garrison, setting in prepare the paroxysm of the Civil Conflict.
Whether or not the assassination was formally sanctioned by Michael Collins is the main focus of a lot of the ultimate chapter and the reader is left in little doubt as to McGreevy’s conclusion – backed up by loads of proof – in that regard. Of nice help in charting the story of the assassins are the information held in Eire’s Army Archives, which fortunately survive, not like the various information which went up in smoke when the bombs rained down on the 4 Courts on the finish of June 1922.
The capturing of Henry Wilson only a week earlier than the 4 Courts fell was a serious, and maybe heretofore understated, think about precipitating the battle. Ronan McGreevy’s riveting and expertly offered survey of occasions and their wider contexts ensures that the assassination at 36 Eaton Place on 22 June 1922 is rightly positioned on the coronary heart of that the majority traumatic of durations within the historical past of Eire.
Nice Hatred: The Assassination of Discipline Marshal Sir Henry Wilson MP
Faber 464pp £20
Purchase from bookshop.org (affiliate hyperlink)
Owen O’Shea is a PhD candidate at College School Dublin. His guide on the Civil Conflict in Kerry will likely be revealed by Merrion Press in November 2022.