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Alexander the Great’s Last Big Win

by Enochadmin

When Alexander the Nice’s homesick troopers mutinied on the banks of India’s Hyphasis (present-day Beas) River in 326 BC, he needed to abandon his eastward march. Then, to outline the jap boundary of his empire, the Macedonian warrior-king led his military south alongside the Hydaspes (Jhelum) River. Allied Mallian and Oxydracian tribes fielding 90,000 infantry, 10,000 cavalry and 900 chariots—a military twice the scale of Alexander’s—sought to disclaim the invaders passage by way of their territory.

Because it was the wet season, nevertheless, the Mallians and Oxydracians had but to mix forces, since they normally didn’t marketing campaign in such circumstances. The Greco-Macedonians, then again, had been prepared and in a position to struggle year-round. Alexander led his military into Mallian territory, alongside the Acesinea and Hydratois (Chenab and Ravi) rivers. Establishing a camp on the confluence of the Hydaspes and the Acesinea, Alexander first secured his traces of communication after which marched down the Acesinea to ascertain a base at its confluence with the Hydratois. Subsequent, he led a big power east throughout the desert between the rivers, whereas a smaller power adopted behind to comb up any Mallians who managed to keep away from the primary Greco-Macedonian column or tried to flee north. That threw the Mallians additional off-balance. Alexander was now effectively positioned for a drive south. Unable to decide on a frontrunner or coordinate with the Oxydracians, the Mallians retreated behind the partitions of their varied settlements.


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Having crossed the desert, Alexander moved in opposition to the northernmost Mallian cities. The Mallians had been so sick ready that some had been stunned exterior their partitions. The Macedonian cavalry cordoned off the area by occupying a metropolis to the southeast and sealing off escape routes to the north and west. Alexander then took town of Atari, opening the highway to the capital of Malli (presumably present-day Multan, Punjab). As Alexander approached Malli, enemy forces assembled on the river’s far (west) financial institution. Realizing how the Mallians feared his military, Alexander despatched simply his cavalry on the assault. Though the Mallians initially broke and fled, they turned and fought once they noticed how few Macedonians they confronted. By using their larger ability and mobility, the Macedonian cavalry held on till infantry arrived, the Mallians finally shedding coronary heart and fleeing.

The survivors retreated inside Malli’s formidable citadel. Whereas a few of Alexander’s males started undermining the citadel partitions, others introduced up scaling ladders. The impatient warrior-king went up one ladder with a pair of bodyguards. Recognizing Alexander on the ramparts, a bunch of Greco-Macedonians fearing for his security crowded the ladders, which broke underneath their weight. Reduce off and focused by the Mallians, Alexander leaped down into the citadel, preventing for his life. A lot of his males scaled the partitions whereas others bodily broke down the gates. They quickly reached Alexander, who’d taken an arrow by way of the lung. As rescuers bore him away, his troops started to slaughter each Mallian they might discover. Order was solely restored when Alexander had recovered sufficient to emerge from his tent.

Alexander’s victory over the Mallians compelled the Oxydracians to give up and secured the area for the Macedonian empire. The marketing campaign additionally daunted different Indian tribes and rulers, lots of whom hastened to supply their submission. 


Do the sudden. Search for revolutionary methods to grab the strategic initiative and maintain the enemy off-balance so they can’t reply successfully.

Be in all places. Alexander divided his forces and tasked subordinates with missions designed to maintain stress on the enemy. Such ways made it unattainable for the Mallians to successfully focus their forces. 

Know when to be affected person. Alexander’s hasty determination to guide from the entrance at Malli nearly obtained him killed and threatened to derail a superb marketing campaign.

this text first appeared in Navy Historical past journal

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