Home History A 54th Massachusetts Officer’s Unpublished Account On the Regiment’s Heroic Assault on Fort Wagner

A 54th Massachusetts Officer’s Unpublished Account On the Regiment’s Heroic Assault on Fort Wagner

by Enochadmin

Because the 54th Massachusetts waited under Fort Wagner, Capt. John W.M. Appleton distracted himself from the nervousness of approaching battle by writing a letter to his spouse, Mary. It was not lengthy, nevertheless, earlier than his focus shifted from relating current occasions to telling her what was about to occur: “We’re within the excessive advance in opposition to Fort Wagner, shot is singing over us from the Insurgent weapons. My firm & William’s & Pope’s & Grace’s prematurely.” Betraying his sense of imminent hazard, he wrote one final line earlier than turning his full consideration to the Accomplice place, telling his spouse, “[W]e will meet in heaven if not on Earth, kiss [our two-year-old daughter] Mabel.”

Though the 54th Massachusetts Infantry, one of many Union’s earliest Black regiments, had fought a spirited skirmish two days earlier, many believed main the assault on Fort Wagner was the true take a look at to reply the query if enlisting African Individuals to battle for his or her freedom would work. Appleton hoped that his superiors would “allow us to battle on till slavery is unattainable.” Main the assault in opposition to one of many key earthen Accomplice forts defending Charleston, South Carolina, may quiet a lot of the critics and settle the difficulty for good. This was the chance for which the regiment and its commander, Col. Robert Gould Shaw, had been lobbying for a while now.

The sick results of sunstroke compelled Appleton, a serious on the time, to resign from the 54th in late 1864. (Courtesy of the Massachusetts Historic Society)

Just like the 54th’s different hand-picked firm commanders, Appleton got here from Massachusetts. Though he attended Harvard Medical Faculty within the early 1850s, he didn’t full his coaching and was working as a clerk when the struggle began. Not like his future commander, Shaw, Appleton had not instantly joined one of many regiments that headed south to battle. His prewar service was as a personal within the Corps of Cadets, Massachusetts Militia within the months previous to becoming a member of the 54th. Appleton served with the unit performing guard obligation in and round Boston earlier than it was federalized in Might 1862 and despatched to garrison Fort Warren in Boston Harbor. The unit was mustered out two months later, leaving Appleton trying to find one other command with which to serve. Though there have been quite a few alternatives, Appleton determined that “if the Authorities ever allowed the coloured man a chance to battle for his or her liberty,” he most popular to serve in such a regiment. The time got here within the late fall of 1862, earlier than the Emancipation Proclamation went into impact Jan. 1, 1863. Ten days later, on January 11, Appleton wrote to Col. Thomas W. Higginson, who had been appointed the commanding officer of the first South Carolina (Union) Infantry in November 1862 and was within the strategy of recruiting his regiment, which was made up of escaped slaves from South Carolina and Georgia. Appleton wrote Higginson, “I’m desirous of serving our nation in reference to the coloured troops now being raised.”

The 54th

Though the keen Appleton didn’t get the captain’s fee he sought from Colonel Higginson, his alternative got here three weeks later when Massachusetts Gov. John Andrew licensed the formation of a brand new infantry regiment of African American troopers, to be named the 54th Massachusetts Infantry. Appleton was initially commissioned a second lieutenant, one of many all-white officers within the embryonic regiment, in February 1863 and despatched out on recruiting obligation.

After three months of coaching at Camp Meigs, close to Boston, the regiment was ordered to South Carolina in late Might — lastly, as one officer famous, “en route for rebellious soil.” Initially the 54th was positioned below the command of Colonel James Montgomery, who ordered his two regiments to maintain busy searching for guerrilla forces whereas executing complete struggle on the native populace, destroying crops and burning any constructing he felt may very well be used for the Accomplice trigger, together with non-public properties.

The provide of $13-a-month pay on this recruiting poster turned a supply of rivalry for Black males of the 54th when the federal authorities arbitrarily altered the speed to $10 a month. (Courtesy of the Massachusetts Historic Society)

Hating the work Montgomery assigned his males and determined for his regiment to see fight, Colonel Shaw was capable of get his command transferred to Brig. Gen. George C. Robust’s brigade. Motion would shortly comply with, as Union forces continued their efforts to knock out or seize Accomplice installations defending Charleston Harbor, which included masonry forts like Forts Sumter and Moultrie, and earthen installations similar to Forts Wagner and Gregg (which the Confederates as an alternative referred to as “batteries”).

On July 16, the regiment lastly engaged in fight operations, no much less to save lots of a white regi-
ment — the tenth Connecticut Infantry — from presumably being lower off throughout a heavy skirmish at Grimball’s Touchdown on James Island. The 54th Massachusetts suffered greater than 40 casualties in its baptismal fight.

The ferocity of the combating at Grimball’s Touchdown was solely a precursor for what adopted two days later when the 54th led the twilight assault in opposition to Fort Wagner. Union troops have been pulled off the island for a brief relaxation, with out camp equipage or meals, the following day. The shortage of meals and high quality sleep didn’t stop Robust’s brigade, with the 54th Massachusetts in entrance, from being ordered to assault Fort Wagner, on Morris Island, on July 18.

Although nonetheless drained from the combating on the sixteenth and hungry, the lads within the regiment understood the importance of main the assault on the fort. The assault, scheduled to start out at 7:30 p.m., needed to be launched on a slim entrance, hemmed in by the Atlantic Ocean on the suitable and marshes from Vincent’s Creek on the left. The heavy daylight bombardment previous the assault didn’t do a lot injury to Brig. Gen. William B. Taliaferro’s Confederates ready contained in the fort. Unable to assault throughout a wider entrance, and with just one viable strategy, Robust’s brigade as an entire — and particularly the 54th Massachusetts — had solely a forlorn hope. Even when they may breach the fort, it was unlikely the remainder of the supporting instructions might come to their support. Nonetheless, this was what Shaw had requested for, and what the others like Appleton wished: the possibility to show the combating capabilities of their African American troopers. 

Union Colonel Robert Gould Shaw and Brig. Gen. George C. Robust, who commanded the lead brigade in Truman Seymour’s 2nd Division. Robust was mortally wounded by shellfire, dying July 30. (Heritage Auctions, Dallas; Library of Congress)

As Robust’s brigade assembled for the assault, Shaw organized his regiment into two assault columns. He led the primary battalion whereas his second in command, Lt. Col. Norwood Hallowell, led the second. As they anxiously awaited the order to assault, 19-year-old Capt. Luis Emilio remembered how “[o]fficers had silently grasped each other’s palms, introduced their revolvers to the entrance, tightened their sword-belts. The lads whispered final injunctions to comrades, and listened” for the command to start the assault, first at fast time, then when 100 yards from the fort, on the double-quick. Capt. Appleton would lastly have the possibility to “drive my boys exhausting” in battle, throughout which he hoped “to climb the outside slope of a Insurgent battery, particularly if a white Regiment assaults close to us.”

His account under begins because the regiment waited to launch the assault on Fort Wagner. Earlier than it was over, Appleton was among the many greater than 40 p.c of the regiment’s males who turned casualties, together with 14 of twenty-two officers.

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Speak of Trifles

We sat down on the sand to attend our orders, close to me Surgeon [Lincoln R.] Stone had some stretchers. As we sat there we talked of trifles, and each physique appeared completely cool and calm. After some time, we have been ordered ahead and commenced our march up the sandy highway, in the midst of the island[.] We handed the sunshine home blown up by the Rebels, and earthworks taken from them, and after passing the sand hills got here out on a extra stage expanse of sand, close to the previous Beacon home.

Earlier than us, we might nonetheless see Fort Sumter looming up, nearer, on the island have been earthworks, and Ft. Wagner. as quickly as we have been perceived by the Rebels they commenced firing strong shot at us, apparently 32-pounders, they struck in entrance of us and ricocheted over us. We have been marching by the flank proper in entrance, that’s in column of 4 males abreast, Co. B in entrance and my Firm A behind them. We moved ahead below this innocent fireplace, till we reached our batteries, which have been taking part in on Wagner, and turning to the suitable handed spherical them onto the seaside. Simply as we did so a shell from the enemy exploded at one of many weapons and over the smoke I noticed a person’s cap fly excessive within the air. After passing properly in entrance of the batteries, we have been shaped in line by wing that’s, half the regiment within the entrance line, and the opposite half in line behind them. Our arms have been loaded, however by order no [percussion] caps have been placed on the weapons. We have been then ordered to lie down. Earlier than us, the Island narrowed to a strip of sand with the harbor of Charleston on our proper and an inlet on our left. The primary line or wing was below rapid command of the Colonel, the second below cost of Main [Edward N. “Ned”] Hallowell.

Clockwise from prime left: Sergeant Henry Steward, from Michigan, was half of a big portion of free, non-Massachusetts troopers within the 54th
(he survived Wagner however died in September 1863); Sergeant James W. Bush; Non-public Richard Gomar, Co. H; and Non-public Charles Smith, Co. C. (Courtesy of the Massachusetts Historic Society)

The road officers have been all of their locations, within the rear of their firms, largely mendacity down with their males. Some nevertheless moved about just a little and talked in low tones with one another.

We instructed one another the place our letters have been in our pockets and requested that they be despatched dwelling in case we didn’t come up out of the battle. Gen. Robust got here in entrance of the Regiment, and addressed the lads, telling them that he was a Massachusetts man and that he knew they might uphold the distinction of the previous [Bay] State. He was a noble determine, and his phrases have been applauded by the lads. I feel all of us liked him at first sight. Because the cannon shot flew over us he mentioned[,] “boys don’t thoughts them, they’ve been firing at me all day and couldn’t hit me.”

He requested who was the colour sergeant, after which requested who would choose up the flag, and carry it on in case he ought to be hit or fail. A number of voices answered “I.” Colonel Shaw who stood close to him took his cigar from his lips and mentioned quietly “I’ll.” Gen. Robust mentioned he was sorry that we should go in to the battle drained, and hungry, as we have been, however the enemy have been drained and hungry too, as that they had been below heavy fireplace all day. “Don’t fireplace a musket on the best way up, however go in and bayonet them at their weapons.” Our little Colonel to outward look as calm as ever, walked slowly up and down in entrance of the traces.

I imagine he [Shaw] instructed Ned Hallowell, our Main, that he thought he wouldn’t come out of the battle, however can be contented if he might have lived just a little longer along with his spouse. Sure he had married simply earlier than we left the State. Nobody from his look might have instructed {that a} single apprehension of hazard to himself was in his ideas. When he came to visit to our finish of the road, he as soon as stood and appeared fixedly on me, I used to be the one officer standing up on the time, it appeared as if he was about to talk, however he didn’t. He wore a spherical jacket, with silver eagles pinned ‘on his shoulders, a cap and his quick stature and honest hair and face beardless, aside from a moustache, made him look very boyish.

Wilkie James [Lieutenant Garth Wilkinson James], our adjutant, got here as much as me and mentioned “we’ve probably the most magnificent likelihood to show the valor of the coloured race now,” and as he spoke by chance discharged his revolver. The colonel appeared spherical on us and Wilkie mentioned, “I might not have had that occur for something.” Quickly the declining day introduced the early darkness, and the phrase got here to rise, and [move] ahead. We moved at fast time, with mounted bayonets. All this time the weapons of the fleet and shore batteries had been thundering away “Show yourselves males,” mentioned the Colonel, as we began. Our traces have been about sixteen hundred yards from the fort. As we superior, fireplace was opened upon us, the strip of land over which we charged was various in width, now we had loads of room, and now our traces have been crowded collectively by the water on both aspect. In addition to, the fireplace of Wagner, Fort Johnson, and the batteries on James Island, Cummings Level, Sumter, Moultrie, and Sullivans Islands batteries performed on us. The lads was to maneuver at fast time to inside 100 yards of the Fort after which cost at a double. We got here to a line of shattered palisades, how we handed them we will hardly inform. Then we handed over some rifle pits and I can dimly keep in mind seeing some males in them, over whom we ran.

(Map by DLF Group)

The fireplace turned horrible shell, canister, and musket balls tore by means of us. [Capt. Edward L.] Jones’ Co [D], within the second line, which was behind, closed up on us of their pleasure, and Willie [Lieutenant William H. Homans] was busy beating them again. The horrible roar deafened us, as we pressed on, finally, we reached the moat of the fort. The sky had change into black with clouds, and the thunder cracked and lightening flashed. As we reached the ditch some one gave an order “by the suitable flank, and Co B on my proper, apparently filed off that manner. My firm preserved its alignment and the 2 cannonades within the bastions on that prompt have been fired, the one on the suitable, tearing the suitable of the corporate to specific killing Sergeant [Andrew] Benton, and others, and about on the identical prompt a like catastrophe fell upon the left of the corporate from the bastion on our left. I might hear the rattle of the balls on the lads & arms. I used to be in entrance of the corporate and leaped down into the water, adopted by all the lads left standing.

On my left the Colonel with the colours, and the lads of the businesses on the left, waded throughout abreast with me, we reached the bottom of the curtain and climbed up the parapet. Our second battalion proper with us. On the highest of the works, we met the Rebels, and by the flashes of their weapons we appeared down into the fort. Apparently a sea of bayonets, some eight or ten toes under us. The Colonel planted the colours on the traverse subsequent the service journal on the left of the curtain, and the combating was now about them. In my rapid entrance the enemy have been very courageous and met us eagerly. Bayonets, musket butts, revolvers and swords and musket pictures, have been all used, however our small quantity and our drawback in being up in opposition to the sky instructed closely.

The lads quickly turning out round me. I obtained a sword thrust by means of my shirt but it surely fortuitously handed between my legs. About this time, I noticed our colours fall, rise once more and return by means of the water of the ditch borne by some one. Discovering it unattainable to carry the crest of the parapet, we have been so close to the enemy as to have the ability virtually to the touch them, they usually have been ready to make use of cannon rammers, and hand spikes within the melee. We withdrew our diminished numbers to the outer slope of the parapet, hoping to carry in till our second brigade got here up, and continued the battle as finest we might. On the left bastion the enemy rallied and opened an enfilading fireplace with muskets upon us. Not one man stood on the parapet once I left it. All down the outside slope, in addition to on the highest, lay the our bodies of our males and behind us within the water of the moat, the poor fellows our bodies lay like stepping stones. If we can’t take the fort unaided, our obligation is to carry what little we’ve gained till the assault of the Brigade behind us, and to maintain if attainable the enemy from firing their cannon upon our advancing troops. To that job we bent our energies. Capts. [George] Pope and Jones, and Lieut[ant Edward B.] Emerson, who had simply been assigned to my firm, and myself with a crowd of our males of all firms maybe fifty in quantity now commenced firing at each insurgent who confirmed himself. We picked up the muskets of the fallen however discovered many ineffective from being stuffed with sand. The coolness and bravado of those officers and males was very marked.

Troublesome enemy

The enemy have been significantly troublesome from their bastion on our left. One man specifically with a broad brimmed hat hit some one in every of our males each time he fired. I ordered a Sergt to select him off, however he couldn’t, so Capt Pope and I, fired at him on the identical time when he subsequent confirmed himself, and he disappeared, and we noticed no extra of him. A wounded soldier of my firm lay along with his again in opposition to the fort, his damaged arm throughout his physique, he was taking cartridges from his field tearing them and laying them in his wounded arm, for Lieut. Emerson, who was doing good work with a musket. Emerson was however 17 yrs previous and as courageous as just a little lion, most of our officers have been very younger, Pope however 19, Poor [Lieutenant] Cabot Russel however 18. and many others. One in all my males chafing at combating so on the defensive, regardless of my order to maintain nonetheless the place he was, mentioned he would go up and kill one other one and climbed as much as the highest of the parapet once more, he fired and instantly rolled down proper over me, a corpse.

Leaving Pope, Jones, and Emerson, who’re doing manful service, I crawl half manner into an embrasure in entrance of the gun, marked S within the place and with my heavy revolver preserve the lads from firing in. As they rise up to prime it they’re inside a number of toes and all in sight once I fireplace, they disappear. After being there for a while regardless of their efforts to dislodge me with bayonet, shot, and clubbed muskets. I really feel anyone tugging at my legs. So I crawl again and discover Geo Wilson of my firm, who although shot by means of each shoulders, is not going to go the rear with out depart. I inform him what I feel is the easiest way to get out, after which discover that Pope has fallen, apparently useless, and there are however three officers of the 54th standing and no males. Whereas we hesitate we hear combating occurring within the bastion on our proper, and skirting the wall we climb up into it and discover a number of of the forty eighth N[ew] York and another regiments combating over a traverse, we be part of them and participate. Simply earlier than leaving our previous place I discovered my revolver cylinder wouldn’t flip, because it was filled with sand. I took it aside[,] cleaned it on my shirt shirt and reloaded.

The place we now have been we had a cussed lot of males to contend in opposition to and others have been firing on us from the bomb proof. When the enemy laid their muskets on the traverse to fireplace on us, the muzzles challenge on our aspect, and we shoot them hardly an arms size away. I shoot one who catches the sand baggage as he falls, pondering he’s about to get better, I cock the pistol, and current it once more. A grenade bursts and almost cuts my thumb off, and the pistol twirls round on my fore finger. Simply at that second, Capt. Jones falls closely in opposition to me and earlier than he can reply my query of ‘sir are you damage?” a chunk of shell strikes me in the suitable breast a crushing blow, and lays me beside him. For a second the entire darkish scene disappears, and I see my spouse’s face apparently near me, quickly I get my scattered senses to gether, and discover that my rubber coat which I had worn in a roll throughout my proper shoulder has been lower almost in two, that I’ve a gap in my shirt from which the blood flows, and I cautiously probe the wound in my again with my finger, pondering the missile had gone into my chest. I discover that the bones grate and provides manner below the stress, however that there isn’t a free gap within the chest, and that it is just some damaged ribs. My breath got here with nice ache however I attempted to shoot with my left hand, however the ache was too nice and so I laid down once more.

Captain Luis Emilio (middle) survived the assault; Ezekiel Tomlinson (left) and Daniel Spear (proper) joined the 54th July 19. Wounded at Olustee, Tomlinson resigned Might 1864. (Library of Congress)

Capt[ain] Jones laid silent along with his toes towards our traces. A soldier of the forty eighth New York wounded, laid throughout the embrasure and I lay with my head on his leg. Quickly bullets started to return from our traces, and fall thickly amongst us. I requested Emerson, who was nonetheless combating with a musket, to get a sand bag off the parapet to shelter Jones, he tried however couldn’t and reported “Hornets too thick to do it Captain.” The soldier, whose leg my head rested on, had been groaning a superb deal. Now a bullet strikes him, he attracts up his limbs and is silent perpetually.

This firing on us from the rear have to be stopped and I order Lieut. Emerson to go to the rear and report our place, and ask for reinforcements. The courageous fellow says, “I’ll go if ordered, however I’m the one one unwounded and if I’m killed and also you get out inform them I glided by orders and never as a result of I used to be afraid.”

Pondering that he was doing good service I concluded to attempt to go myself, so I tied my sword within the sheath and buttoned my revolver as a substitute, and crept to the opening in [the] parapet. The face of the work was swept by a hail of bullets, as I slid over to the water spent ones struck me like stones, quickly I felt the useless below my toes within the fringe of the water and I stumbled alongside in the direction of the harbor seaside and after a number of efforts managed to rise up out of the ditch and out upon the seaside.

From the Insurgent Forts shells got here screaming over the seaside. Wounded males crawl or hobble again in the direction of our traces. And lots of useless lie alongside the sand. After going a ways down the seaside I flip to the suitable pondering that our troops that had been firing on us have to be close to. I’m in nice ache however the firing on us have to be stopped, and I am going throughout the Island in entrance of the Fort, there’s a regular fireplace of musketry from the Fort and shells of all sizes are bursting throughout. I am going to the sting of the marsh however discover no troops besides right here and there a straggler behind a sand heap.

Then going again to the seaside and decrease down, I attempt it once more, nonetheless I discover no troops. Coming again to the seaside I meet a mounted officer along with his employees, to him I inform my story that we maintain one bastion of the Fort and if bolstered can most likely take it and that I’ll return with the recent troops. I’m holding by his horses mane whereas I discuss to him. He asks me If I’m wounded, after which orders me to report back to a surgeon and factors me to a dim mild over the seaside and says he’ll go as much as the fort and see to it. So I begin down the seaside once more, quickly I come to [Lieutenant] Tom Appleton and two extra of our officers with our colours and maybe sixty of our males. I communicate to them after which go to the surgeon, he examines me and orders me over to a hospital under.

Simply after I depart him some one fires a musket at me from the sand hillocks on my proper. I am going in the direction of him however can’t discover him. Then I discover some wounded males halted on the seaside, and see flashes of weapons and listen to bullets whistle by an officer with a damaged arm, and faint with lack of blood, tells me that he has tried to move the road however they fireplace at him. Some our bodies lie earlier than us of males that they’ve shot. We attempt to move collectively and fortuitously meet an officer. Asking what their firing on us means. They are saying they’re to cease stragglers. I inform him that definitely doesn’t imply wounded males ordered to Hospital. He then passes us and we quickly attain hospital tents. I’m made to lie down and given a cup of espresso, the place I laid down on the sand a physique had simply been eliminated. Quickly plenty of wounded are introduced in and a few of us who can stroll are picked up and began down the seaside to a hospital boat, as I attain the seaside an artillery driver with two horses meets me and affords to take me together with him on one in every of his pair of horses. He helps me on however the movement of the horse hurts my damaged ribs in order that I encourage to get down and he transfers me to a passing ambulance, which takes me to the steamboat. helped up the gang plank, the passengers within the ambulance discover themselves on a crowded boat.

I’m taken into the cabin and proven a spot on the ground the place I can lie down subsequent to Adjutant [Wilkie] James, and close to Capt[ain Samuel] Willard. The seats across the sides of the cabin and the carpeted flooring are lined with wounded officers. Our Main Hallowell lies on the ground close to the steps that lead under. Exterior the cabin the decks are lined with troopers with each number of wounds. I don’t suppose we talked a lot. The surgeons moved spherical amongst us dressing wounds and I feel gave us all opiates. At any charge I went off right into a useless sleep and once I woke it was morning and we have been out to sea.

Based mostly on an eyewitness Frank Vizetelly sketch, this engraving—dated July 19 and printed in Illustrated London Information—reveals Union useless within the “moat” that lined the primary wall the 54th attacked. (The American Civil Warfare Museum; Chronicle/Alamy Inventory Photograph)

Postscript

Someday after he reached a hospital ship late within the night time of July 18-19, John Appleton added a postscript to the letter he had begun for his spouse. He assured her, “The battle is over and [I] am out safely with two slight wounds, very slight, thank God.” Given the apparent problem he had writing, whether or not as a result of his wounds or circumstances aboard the hospital ship, it’s uncertain his further phrases eased Mary’s considerations. A minimum of she knew he was alive; nevertheless, she should have been shocked when he listed so a lot of his fellow officers among the many useless, wounded, and lacking. Fortuitously, she was capable of assess his situation for herself when he was despatched dwelling to get better. He remained at dwelling in Massachusetts for 3 months, lastly reporting for obligation again in South Carolina on October 24, 1863.

Appleton’s time main Firm A ended shortly after his return when he was appointed Inspector Basic for the brigade in late November and promoted to main, however he returned to serve with the regiment through the Florida Marketing campaign within the winter of 1863-64. In that marketing campaign, Union forces have been despatched to Florida to take management of the northern sector of the state and deprive the Confederacy of untouched farmlands there. The marketing campaign failed, culminating with the Union loss on the Battle of Olustee on February 20, 1864.

When Union forces have been withdrawn from Florida. Appleton returned to persevering with efforts to seize Charleston. Exertion within the humidity and warmth led to sunstroke and a bodily collapse in July 1864, and he was once more despatched dwelling to get better. Noting that his wounds weren’t totally healed and that he had not completely recovered from the results of sunstroke, he resigned his fee on November 15, 1864, simply 15 days earlier than the 54th Massachusetts participated on the Battle of Honey Hill, S.C. After months at dwelling to regain his well being, he returned to service within the last days of the struggle, as a serious in charge of the first Battalion Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, and commander of Fort Warren.

After an prolonged siege, Wagner’s garrison, all the way down to about 400 effectives, lastly deserted the fort in a single day September 6-7. Some Black troopers concerned within the July 18 assault have been a part of the occupying drive, as proven right here. (Courtesy of the Massachusetts Historic Society)

Though the struggle ended earlier than his command may very well be referred to as to area service, Appleton remained at Fort Warren, which had change into a jail for senior Accomplice officers, together with Vice President Alexander Stephens. He resigned from that put up in August and virtually instantly moved his household to West Virginia, the place he lived for almost 60 years, till his demise in October 1913. 

The authors wish to thank the West Virginia and Regional Historical past Heart for permission to make use of this portion of John Appleton’s postwar journal. James Jewell and Eugene Van Sickle, who educate historical past at North Idaho Faculty and the College of North Georgia, respectively, are engaged on a e book primarily based on the journal.

This text first appeared in America’s Civil Warfare journal

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